Coronavirus pandemic linked to destruction of wildlife and world’s ecosystems

COVID-19 is the latest example of how human impact on biodiverse areas and wildlife habitats is linked to the spread of infectious diseases.

The scientific consensus, on the other hand, is that the virus — SARS-CoV-2 — is a zoonotic disease that jumped from animal to human. It most likely originated in a bat, possibly before passing through another mammal.

While the virus was certainly not engineered in a laboratory, this doesn’t mean we haven’t played a role in the current pandemic. Human impingement on natural habitats, biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation are making virus spillover events much more likely, a major new study from scientists in Australia and the US has found.


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Connection to Nature – Exploring the Construct of Relational Values

Why should nature be preserved and protected? This question is often answered from an instrumental or an intrinsic position (Tallis and Lubchenco, 2014). The fundamental postulate of the intrinsic perspective is that biological diversity has a value of its own, regardless of the potential use or benefit for humans. Species have value because of their pure existence, and this value is seen as inviolable (Soulé, 1985; Sandler, 2012). In terms of the instrumental point of view, the focus is on ecosystem services for the protection of nature. Instrumentalists argue that this beneficial approach is more effective than an intrinsic value of nature (Reid et al., 2006). Furthermore, the protection of nature for its own good is considered as outdated and impractical (Soulé, 2013). A weakness of the instrumental view is the existence of natural things that have little or no value to humans. For this reason, intrinsic values should not be disregarded. However, instrumental arguments are more often effective for the general public and should, therefore, be used in contexts where conservation is crucial (Tallis and Lubchenco, 2014).


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The trouble with how we talk about climate change

It’s a rare day when the news doesn’t cover something related to climate change, whether biodiversity loss, climate refugees, retreating glaciers, or an extreme weather event. Though it’s broadly accepted that climate change is caused by “us,” at some level, we often assume the solutions are covered and controlled by experts, especially natural scientists, engineers, national governments, and international organizations. In that sense, climate change is not in our hands, even as it lies at our feet. Another tendency of the daily climate change reminders is to suggest that we are all in this together. That this is a global challenge, and that we stand shoulder to shoulder in a global lifeboat, collectively imperiled by climate change.

These are oversimplifications.

And they boil down to five problematic “reductionisms.” In academese, we term these disciplinary, participatory, experiential, teleological, and species reductionisms.


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Why urgent action is needed to avoid centuries of global warming

In the climate change debate, we often hear the argument that the climate has been changing since time immemorial. This is true, but if modern climate change differs from pre-historic climate cycles, the statement by itself is empty. We need to know how modern climate change compares with that of the past.

Geological observations and computer climate-models have revealed the basic controls and responses involved in past climate variability. This is how we know that the climate has always varied. We also know that this happened because of small changes in the forcing of climate that resulted from long-term changes in Earth’s orbital position around the Sun, small changes in the actual solar output, and occasional injection of volcanic dust veils into the atmosphere. These small triggers could result in large climate responses because of feedback processes.


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Dialogic action in climate change discussions

Global efforts to prepare young developing minds for solving current and future challenges of climate change have advocated interdisciplinary, issues-based instructional approaches in order to transform traditional models of science education as delivering conceptual facts (UNESCO, 2014). This study is an exploration of the online interactions in an international social network of high school students residing in Norway, China, New Zealand and the United States (N=141). Students participated in classroom-based and asynchronous online discussions about adapted versions of seminal scientific studies with facilitative support from seven scientists across various fields. Grounded in a language-in-use frame for investigating facilitation and demonstrations of problem-based and evidence-based reasoning (Kelly & Chen, 1999), we traced the varied questions, assertions, and evidentiary sources within student-led online discussions. We found that questions from scientific experts in the form of unconstrained, open-ended invitations for exploration were followed by students’ acknowledgment and consideration of complex and, at times, conflicting sociopolitical and economic positions about climate change issues. These findings suggest that broadening science classroom discussions to include socially relevant, unsolved issues like climate change could open potential entry points for a dialogic approach that fosters a scientific community in the classroom.


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Global leadership for social design: theoretical and educational perspectives

The rapid change of technological, social, and cultural structures is challenging universities to offer new educational programs. The Global Leader Program for Social Design and Management (GSDM) of the University of Tokyo can be seen as a forerunner in this field. The paper provides definitions of social design as well as of global leadership and provides a proposal for the definition of the objective of the GSDM program, i.e., multi-level resilient human-environment system. These subjects are embedded in the framework of human-environment systems (HES). We identified the different types of knowledge integration that ‘global leaders for social design’ should master. The core of the sustainable social design is to (1) properly conceptualize and manage “resilient coupled human-environment systems” and to (2) integrate or relate different systems, epistemic, interests, cultures, and knowledge systems. The specific challenge in this context is to cope with conflicting cultural-religious systems or to understand how the vulnerability of different human systems with respect to digital environments. Social design is conceived as all rules, mechanisms, and preferences that govern the interaction of humans with material, biophysical, technological, and socio-cultural epistemic environments. The goal of education for global leadership for social design may have to progress from the T-shaped skills profile (i.e., being specialized in one discipline and having the capability to collaborate with other disciplines) to the π-profile. Students for leadership in global designs must be qualified in a social and an engineering/natural science and literate and capable to know, relate, and govern different disciplines, cultures, or systems which have to be included in the sustainable transitioning of cultural and socio-technological systems. The paper elaborates in what way transdisciplinarity is needed and why resilience management should be seen as a proper objective of GSDM. The challenges of the new educational program for the science system and institutions as well as for students and professors are discussed.


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Rules to goals: emergence of new governance strategies for sustainable development

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Agreement on climate are the key international agreements to deliver a sustainable future. They are a compromise between the scientifically necessary and politically possible to achieve global sustainability. Agreed in 2015, they constitute a radical departure for the international policy with no precedents and are beginning to shape national policy, civil society, and business decisions. We argue that these new frameworks represent the most important institutional innovation to emerge in recent years. They mark a shift away from international rule-making towards a system based on goal setting. This reflects a theory of societal steering or what we commonly think of as governance that differs sharply from mainstream regulatory systems by Pauwelyn et al. (Eur J Int Law 24:733–763, 2014). Given that achieving the Paris Agreement and the SDGs will require the transformation of societies at all levels, it remains unclear how existing instruments, policies, and even institutions will adapt to this new global governance strategy. The key to success, we argue, will be “action coherence”, whereby actions initiated to fulfill individual SDGs are coherent across efforts to achieve the full set of SDGs over the long run.


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Climate changes faster than animals adapt

Climate change can threaten species and extinctions can impact ecosystem health. It is therefore of vital importance to assess to which degree animals can respond to changing environmental conditions – for example by shifting the timing of breeding – and whether these shifts enable the persistence of populations in the long run. To answer these questions an international team of 64 researchers led by Viktoriia Radchuk, Alexandre Courtiol and Stephanie Kramer-Schadt from the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (Leibniz-IZW) evaluated more than 10,000 published scientific studies. The results of their analysis are worrisome: Although animals do commonly respond to climate change, such responses are in general insufficient to cope with the rapid pace of rising temperatures and sometimes go in wrong directions. The results are published in the scientific journal “Nature Communications”.


Read also: Adaptive responses of animals to climate
change are most likely insufficient

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Ecology and Architecture: the Design of the Environment for Human Survival

Ecological problems of civilization have not lost their relevance since the twentieth century. Methods of their solution is limited to a one-sided view of the situation, which does not allow changing it radically. Consideration of the system of knowledge in the context of the transformation and the transition to a new type of network society provides an opportunity to rethink the very way of human existence, which is directly reflected in the concept of a contemporary city. Modern society is moving towards a network-based, horizontal distribution of knowledge, which is both the cause of the actualization of the environmental problems of the city and the way to solve them.


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EcoPhilosophies: Shades of Green

Continuums allow us to map where we have been, where we are currently located and where we are heading. On the Shades of Green continuum, I locate anthropocentric and ecocentric philosophies in five clusters distinguished by the value placed on relationality with nature: Utilitarianism, Conservationism, Green Ecology, Organicism and Regeneration. Increasing depth of empathy, unity and connectedness to place characterize ecocentric philosophies. Philosophies about nature inform our environmental ethics, environmental adult education, eco-activism and our lifeways; therefore, they are highly relevant to our response to the crisis of climate change. Our response to climate change is symptomatic of deep failures in our way of thinking, being and living. The purpose of this study is to catalyze new ways of thinking about nature, about ourselves as nature and about planet earth as home.


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